Launch monitor technologies are widely used in golf, however, the measurement uncertainty of such devices is not well established. TrackMan and Foresight are two of the most commonly used systems. TrackMan uses Doppler radar technology whereas Foresight is a stereoscopic optical system. Both manufacturers state the accuracy of their systems in their technical specifications, however, the origin of these values is unclear and, to date, they have not been independently verified. Given the need for accurate performance outcomes it is important to validate such systems.


The aim of the study was to determine the degree of agreement, both systematic and random, between two commercial launch monitors, TrackMan Pro IIIe and Foresight GC2+HMT, and a benchmark system, GOM Inspect.


  • Method developed for using the GOM system to track the motion of both clubhead and ball
  • GOM system validated as a ‘gold standard’ against which the commercial devices could be compared
  • Eight golfers hit 10 shots each with a driver, 7-iron and wedge
  • Clubhead and ball parameters were measured from each shot using all three systems simultaneously
  • Clubhead and ball parameters reported by TrackMan and Foresight were analysed against those obtained from the GOM system

Key Findings

  • Uncertainty in GOM system measurements was determined to be 0.06mph in ball velocity, 0.01° in both launch angle and launch direction, and 14 rpm in spin rate (95% confidence intervals)
  • The degree of agreement between the launch was noticeably stronger for ball parameters, with greater variability in the clubhead parameters
  • Dependent on the launch monitor, parameters such as spin rate, club direction, attack angle and dynamic loft showed closer agreement with the GOM values for the 7-iron and wedge compared to the driver
  • For the scientific researcher, a high-level of confidence can be had in the ball parameters measured by both Trackman and Foresight; however, caution needs to be exercised in the use of clubhead parameters
  • Coaches, golfers and club-fitters should find the data to be of sufficient quality for most of their needs